Subject Pronouns+Verb + Object Pronouns        Reflexive Pronouns
I love me                           so              I love myself
You love you                           so      You love yourself
He loves him                         so        He loves himself
She loves her                          so        She loves herself
(Impossible) It loves it                              so              It loves itself
We love us                              so      We love ourselves
You love you                           so   You love yourselves
They love them                         so They love themselves

Quantitative Pronouns
                          Person                       Thing                            Place
+No                                                                                                      *To avoid double negation
+   Some     +      one              /            thing               /             where
- ? Any               body

Distributive Pronouns
Every    +    one              /                thing               /            where

Relative Pronouns 


Simple Tenses

+Subject+Verb (Base Form) *Except 3rd person Singular -s/-es+(Direct & Indirect) Object+CC (Manner Place Time)
I play tennis on Mondays.
He plays the piano at night.
- Subject+Auxiliary Verb (Present Simple)+NOT+Main Verb (B.F.)+O+Circumstantial Complement
I don’t work at 9.00
She doesn’t go home today.
? Auxiliary Verb (Present Simple)+Subject+Main Verb (B.F.)+O+CC+Prep?
Do you dance with me?
Does the cat eat everything?
Short Answers
Adv (Affirmation or Negation), Subject+Auxiliary Verb+(Abbreviation of the Negation)
Yes, I do. /No, he doesn’t.

+Subject+Verb (Past Simple -ED)+O+CC *Irregular Verbs
I studied hard for the exam.
He played football yesterday.
We took the bus the previous year.
You travelled around the world for eighty days.
- Subject+Auxiliary Verb (Past Simple)+NOT+Main Verb (B.F.)+O+CC
They didn’t pay the dinner last month.
? Auxiliary Verb (Past Simple)+Subject+Main Verb (B.F.)+O+CC+Prep?
Did you see him in the city?
Short Answers
Adv (Affirmation or Negation), Subject+Auxiliary Verb+(Abbreviation of the Negation)
Yes, I did. /No, he didn’t.

+Subject+Modal Verb Affirmative WILL/SHALL*1st person+Main Verb (Base Form) + O + CC
I will always love you
- Subject+Modal Verb Negative WON’T/SHAN’T*1st person+Main Verb (B.F.)+O+CC
I won’t buy a car tomorrow
? Modal Verb WILL+Subject+Main Verb (B.F.)+O+CC+Prep?
Will he go to the cinema with us?
Short Answers
Adv (Affirmation or Negation), Subject+Modal Verb+(Abbreviation of the Negation)
Yes, I will. /No, he won’t.

+Subject+Modal Verb Affirmative WOULD/SHOULD/COULD/MIGHT+Main Verb (Base Form) +O+CC
I would buy a car, if I had money. /I’d buy a car, if I’d money.
- Subject+(Modal Verb+Negative) WOULDN’T/SHOULDN’T/COULDN’T/MIGHT NOT + Main Verb (B.F.) +O+CC
You shouldn’t go out tonight, it’s raining.
? Modal Verb for Conditional tense+Subject+Main Verb (B.F.)+O+CC+Prep?
Could you open the window, please? It’s hot here.
Would you like a cup of tea?, etc.
Short Answers
Adv (Affirmation or Negation), Subject+Modal Verb+(Abbreviation of the Negation)
Yes, I would. /No, he wouldn’t.

(See -S/-ES RULES)


Reported Speech

A speaker's words reported in subordinate clauses governed by a reporting verb, with the required changes of person and tense (e.g. he said that he would go, based on I will go ).

Reporting Verbs 
Verb + (Object Pronoun) + (that)                          inform us that...
         + (Object Pronoun) + to + Verb                   remind me to close...
         + (Object Pronoun) + + for + SN                 apologise for

say    said to him
tell    told her
ask    asked them
advise, explain, amounce, mention, reply, offer, suggest, declare, wonder

TELL takes a personal object ("me"; "him"; "her", etc.)
TELL is not used before questions

SAY never takes a personal object (the personal object with "to" is used instead).

         She told me she was going to be late.
         Why did she say that to you?
                                     OD     OI
There are special phrases in which TELL is followed  by the direct object:
TELL the truth
TELL lies (a lie)
TELL stories
TELL the time
TELL jokes
TELL nonsense
To tell someone (not) to do something
(?) To say (not) to do something


Genitive Case

Possessive nouns
The car of Arthur 
Arthur's car

Family relationships
The sisters of Charles have got bikes 
Charles' sisters' bikes or Charles' sisters have got bikes.

Peter is the youngest brother of Linus and Lucy 
Peter is Linus' and Lucy's younger brother.

Two friends of Sue's.                 My sisters' children.

That man's book.                      Those boys' kite.

Mr Hill's records.                       My friends' clothes.

St. Mary's (hospital)                 St. Peter (church)

the baker's (shop)                   the travel agent's (office)


Time expressions
Tonight's show 



Order of Adjectives

                                                        SACO                                                                                                              general to specific
Determiner+Adjective(Opinion  Size  Quality  Shape  Age  Colour  Origin  Material  Type  Purpose)+Noun
Some                                       juicy                                                                   oranges.    
 The                      nice    small           round new green   Turkey metal                       bike. 
 A                                    big                                      red                                      house.
 An                                                               old               Scottish                           man.

This                     lovely big                                                                                      city.
These                  outgoing                                                                                brothers.

Two                interesting small   square  tenth-century silver    French  wooden            tables.
Three                                                                          blue                                      cars. 

   Genitive Case
John's            expensive                                                                                   umbrella.
His                  cheap                                                                                                lamp.          
My                                        new brand                     fucshia                              bicycle. 
       Cambridge dictionary




  1. -W, -X, -Y or when the final syllable is not emphasized + ING    
  2. -Consonant+Vowel+Consonant and when the stress is on the final syllable = -Consonant+Vowel+Consonant+Consonant+ING
  3. -L = -LL+ING
  4. -IE = -Y+ING
  5. -E = -ING
  6. Stressed vowel+R = RR
  1. To enjoy - enjoying                                       To fix - fixing                                                    To snow - snowing
  2. To run - running                                            To begin - beginning                                         To stop - stopping
  3. To travel - travelling (UK) traveling (US)    To marvel - marvelling (UK) marveling (US)
  4. To die - dying                                                To lie - lying                                                      To tie - tying
  5. To make - making                                         To live - living                                                   To move - moving
  6. To refer - referring                                        To defer - deferring


Infinitive versus Gerund

With TO
a. After these verbs:
                want           help              refuse
           decide        promise        persuade
           wish           plan              appear
           agree         choose          learn
           seem          hope             expect
     They decided to take my advice.
     Decidieron seguir mi consejo.
Deseo de hacer algo + subordinada infinitivo (OD)
Sujeto de want y el verbo en infinitivo es igual 
        They want to go out for dinner.
        Ellos quieren salir a cenar. 
Expresar que otra persona haga algo
En castellano consiste en una oración subordinada que lleva sujeto y verbo en subjuntivo. En inglés, en cambio, como el verbo es infinitivo con to, no se considera al sujeto directo de want.
     Do you want Jenny to come with us? 
     ¿Queréis que Jenny venga con nosotros? 
Si el sujeto de la subordinada es un pronombre personal, hay que usar pronombre objeto.
     The doctor wants her to see a specialist.
      El doctor quiere que ella vaya a un especialista.
      He doesn't want me to go.
       Él no quiere que me vaya.

b. After adjectives and adverbs:
     This situation is not easy to understand.
     The car went too fast to see the traffic lights. 

c. With verbs + OD (Person)
           tell            invite            advise            teach            warn
     I invited her to come home.
     Le invité a venir a casa.  


Without TO  
a. Make & Let      
    Let me see your pictures.
    Déjame ver tus dibujos.

b. Some verbs of perception
            hear         feel            see, ...  
     I heard him say that
     Yo le decir aquello

c. Modal Verbs
   can, may, ...

a. Direct Object
   like                      dislike                    miss
   love                     hate                       suggest
   enjoy                   detest                    consider
   prefer                  deny (negar)
I miss seeing her.
Echo de menos verla.

b. After:
   can't stand (no puedo soportar)
   can't help (no puedo evitar) 
   do/does not mind (no importa)
   it's no use (no tiene sentido, no merece la pena)
      It is no use crying. 
         No merece la pena llorar. 

c. After all the prepositions:
    Lucy doesn't like his way of thinking.

d. As a subject of a sentence when we talk about actions or facts in general: 
    Breaking up a relationship is never easy.

e. After BE/GET USED TO, because this TO is a preposition:
    I can't get used to having holidays without you.
    No me acostumbro a ir de vacaciones sin ti.

With or Without TO
Verbs followed by Gerund and Infinitive
+to  "the right thing to do"
I like to wash up as soon as I finish eating.
I like to wash up as soon as I finish eating.
I like to do the shopping as soon as I finish cleaning.
Me gusta hacer la compra en cuanto termino de limpiar. 
       would like
I would like to have a cup of tea.
Me gustaría tomar una taza de té.  
-ing "enjoy"
I like watching shows on the computer.
Me gusta ver series en el ordenador.
+to "make an attempt"
I'm trying to learn Russian but it's very difficult.
Estoy intentando aprender ruso pero es muy difícil.
-ing "make an experiment"
Have you tried using shampoo instead of soap?
¿Has probado a usar champú en vez de jabón?

+to "parar de hacer otra cosa"  
On my way home, I stopped to buy some milk.
De camino a casa paré a comprar algo de leche.
-ing "dejar de hacer algo"        
He didn't stop thinking about trip to London.
Él no pudo parar de pensar sobre el viaje a Londres.

+to "information for housesites"
- Remember to clean the table
  Acuérdate de limpiar la mesa. 
  Remember to lock the house.
  Acuérdate de cerrar con llave la casa.
- Don't forget to feed the cat.
  No te olvides de dar de comer al gato
  Don't forget to water the plants.
  No te olvides de regar las plantas.

-ing "childrehood memories"
- I remember seeing them together. 
  Recuerdo haberlos visto juntos.
- I'll never forget skiing.
  Nunca olvidaré esquiar.

+to "to be sorry to do something"
Before this verbs:
announce               tell          inform
say                         see         learn
I regret to inform that your driving licence has expired. 
 Lamento informarle de que su licencia de conducir ha expirado/caducado. 
-ing "to be sorry to/not to have done something"
I regret spending all the money. I haven't got any left.
Me arrepiento de haberme gastado todo el dinero. No me queda nada.